Active and Passive voice, Rules and Examples | Difference between Active and Passive Voice

Voice has two parts- Active Voice and Passive Voice. Active Voice directly linked to Tense. Therefore, Before knowing about, Voices, it is very important to know about Tenses. In this article, we shall get a detailed study of  Active and Passive voice, Rules and Examples

Voice (वाच्य ) 

 Voice- voice is the art of making a statement.

Active –  I have composed a poem.

Passive A poem has been composed by me.

 There are two kinds of the voice of Transitive Verbs

 1.Active Voice- The voice where the subject dominates the whole sentence is called Active Voice.

 Examples: 

I eat a mango.

We play football.

 2.Passive Voice- The voice where the object dominates the complete sentence is called Passive Voice.

 Examples:

  A mango is eaten by me.

 Football is played by us.

 Note: The sentence having an Intransitive verb doesn’t form a passive voice.

 Examples:

He plays

She is dancing.    

 Note 2: Perfect Continuous form of any tense and future continuous tense do not give the passive forms.

                           General Formula of Active and Passive Voice

 A-S+H.V+M.V +O.

P-  O +H.V +M.V3 + By ( with ,to ,at) +S.

           Active voice को passive voice बनाने का नियम:

  1. Active voice के object को passive voice का subject बना दिया जाता है।
  2. Passive voice केsubject के number और person के मुताबिक Auxiliary verb का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
  3. Passive voice में हमेशा V3 का उपयोग किया जाता है।
  4. Verb के बाद preposition by का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
  5. कभी- कभी by के जगह पर at,in ,on तथा with का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

Change in Personal Pronoun

Subjective Case

  Objective Case

I

Me

We

Us

You

You

He

Him

She

Her

It 

It

Name

Name/ Him/ Her

They

Them

 

Change in Tense

 

   Present Tense                                    

1.1Simple Present Tense

 A-S+V1/V5 +O

P- O+ is/am/are +V3 +by +S.

 Examples: 

A-I play cricket.

P-Cricket is played by me.

 

1.2Present Continuous Tense

 A-S+ is/am/are +V4 +O.

P- O+ is/am/are +being +V3 +by +S.

 Examples: 

A- I am playing Cricket.

P-Cricket is being played by me.

 

1.3 Present Perfect Tense

 A-S +have/has +V3 + O.

P- O +have/has +been +V3 + by + S.

 Examples: 

A- I have played Cricket.

 P-Cricket has been played by me.

 Note: The passive of Present Perfect Continuous does not exist.

 

2.Past Tense

2.1 Simple Past Tense

 A-S +V2+O.

P- O +was/were +V3 +by +S.

 Examples:

A-I Played Cricket.

P-Cricket was played by me.

 

2.2 Past Continuous Tense

 A-S+was/were +V4 +O.

P – O +was/were +being +V3 +by +S.

 Examples: 

A-I was playing Cricket.

 P-Cricket was being played by me.

 2.3 Past Perfect Tense

 A-S +had +V3 +O.

P- O +had +been + V3 +by +S.

Examples: 

A- I had played Cricket.

 P- Cricket had been played by me.

 Note 2: The passive of Past Perfect Continuous does not exist.

 

3.Future Tense

3.1 Simple Future Tense

 A – S +shall/will + V1 +O.

P – O +shall/will +be +V3 +by +S.

 Examples:

A- I shall play Cricket.

 P- Cricket will be played by me.

 Note 3: The passive of Future Continuous Tense does not exist.

 3.3 Future Perfect Tense

 A – S +shall/will +have +V3 + O.

P – O + shall/will +have +been +V3 +by +S.

Examples:

A- I shall have played Cricket.

  P- Cricket will have been played by me.

 Note 4: The passive of Future Perfect Continuous  Tense does not exist.

Some Special Rule of active and passive voice

Special  Rule :1

Some Modals                                               

(Shall, will, would, should,  can, could, may, might, must, need, dare, ought to)

  A-S + M.H.V + V1 +O.

  P- O + M.H.V+ be + V3 + by+S.

Examples:

 A – I can teach you.

P- You can be taught by me.

 

A-My father would buy a new bungalow.

P-A new bungalow would be bought by my father.

Special Rule: 2

A-S+M.H.V+ have + V3 +O.

P- O + M.H.V + have +been + V3 +by + S.

Examples:

A-The students should have learned the words.

P-The words should have been learned by the students.

 

A-The children couldn’t have broken the window.

P- The window couldn’t have been broken by the children.

 Special Rule: 3

A-S+ is/am/are/was/were +to +V1 +O.

P-O +is/am/are/was/were +to+be+ V3+by +S

 Examples:

A-My wife was to buy a necklace.

P-A necklace was to be bought by my wife.

 Special Rule:4

A-S+have/has/had/will have +to +V1 +O.

P- O+ have/has/had/will +to +be+ V3+by+S.

Examples:

A-I have to do it.

P- It has to be done by me.

Special Rule:5

A-There is/are + noun+ to +V1.

P-There +is/are + noun+ to + be +V3.

Examples:

A-There are many trees to cut.

P- There are many trees to be cut.

 

A-There are many letters to write.

P- There are many letters to be written.

 Special Rule: 6

 Double objects voices

 A-My teacher taught me English.

P- I was taught English by my teacher.

OR English was taught to me by my teacher.

 

A-Our Principal has given me a prize.

P- A prize was given to me by our Principal.

OR I was given a prize by our Principal.

 Special Rule: 7

Imperative Sentences

(Order/ Command)

A-V1+O.

P-Let+O+be+V3.

 Examples:

A-Give me a glass of water.

P- Let a glass of water be given.

 A-Shut the windows.

P- Let the windows be shut.

 Special Rule: 8

For Advice

A-V1+O.

P- O + should+ be +V3.

 A- Respect your teachers.

P-Your teachers should be respected.                     

 

A-Help the poor.

P- The poor should be helped. 

Special Rule: 9

 For Request (Kindly/ Please)

A-V1+O.

P- You are requested to +V1

A-Help me.

P- You are requested to help me.

 

 A-Kindly, go there.

P- You are requested to go there.

 Special Rule 10:

Let

A-Let + O + V1+ O.

P- Let + O + be +V3 +by +O.

 Examples:

A-Let him eat a mango.

P-Let a mango be eaten by him.

 

A-Let him go to the tuition.

P-Let the tuition be gone by him.

(For any Suggestion)

Let +us +V1 +O.

It is suggested that we should + V1+O.

Examples:

Let us lunch together.

 It is suggested that we should lunch together.

 A-Let us hang  out together. 

P-It is suggested that we should hang out together.

Special Rule: 11

 Passive with “who

Who is always changed into by whom?

Examples:

A-Who teaches Sohan?

P-By whom is Sohan taught?

 

A-Who has stolen her book?

P- By whom has her book been stolen?

List of some phrasal verbs

 

  • Ask for –मांगना।
  • Arrive at – निष्कर्ष पर पहुँचना।
  • Break down- ख़राब होना।
  • Break up – समाप्त होना 
  • Break out – फैलना 
  • Bring up- पालन पौषण करना।
  • Come across- संयोग मिलना।
  • Eat into – नष्ट करना।
  • Geak out – फैलाना।
  • Geak up- समाप्त होना
  • Give up- छोड़ना।
  • Look after – देख भाल करना।
  • Look into – जाँच करना।
  • Look for- खोजना।
  • Laugh at – दूसरों पर हँसना।
  • Make out – समझना 
  • Run away – भाग जाना 
  • See off – विदा करना 
  • Send for- बुलावा भेजना 
  • Take over – पदभार ग्रहण करना 

 Note:  Phrasal verb always takes its personal preposition.

 Examples:

A-His father is looking after him.

P-He is being looked after by his father.

 

A-He gave up his job.

 P- His job was given up by him.

Following verbs  do not take  ‘by’  

 At

Arrived

Aimed

Amazed

Astonished

Alarmed

Annoyed

Disappointed

Displeased

Distressed

Fired

Knocked

Shocked

Surprised    

Wondered

                                                           

To

Addicted

Compared

Invited

Known

Listened

Obliged

Preferred

Replied

With

Acquaint

Compare

Disgusted

Impressed

Pleased

Provide

Quarreled

Satisfied

Supply

Sympathize

 

In

Arrived

Consisted

Contained

Disinterested

Interested

On

Insist

Congratulate

Depended

 For

Prepared

Examples:

A-I know you.

 P-You are known to me.

 A-His character pleased me.

P- I was pleased with his character.

 A-Alia Bhatt had impressed Ranveer Kapoor.

P- Ranveer Kapoor had been impressed with Alia Bhatt.

 A-I shall oblige to my well-wishers.

P-  My well-wishers will be obliged to me.

 A-He has amazed me on my birthday.

p- I have been amazed at him on my birthday.

 Note: Anyone, everyone, nobody, no one, somebody, someone, and everybody are removed in passive voice.

 A-Someone has stolen my laptop.

P- My laptop has been stolen.

 Special Rule: 12

 S+ want to /wants to +O.

S+want /wants + O +to +be +V3+O.

 Examples:

A-I want to play football.

P- I want football to be played.

 A-He wants to send an email.

P-He wants an email to be sent.

 Special Rule: 13

 A-It + H.V + Noun+ to+ V1+for +Object

P – It+ H.V +Noun + for +Object + to be + M.V3

 Examples:

 A-It is time to do the surgical strike in Pakistan.

P-It is time for the surgical strike to be done in Pakistan.

 A-It is time to buy a new umbrella.

P- It is time for a new umbrella to be bought.

 Special Rule 14:

कुछ वाक्य में object के बाद infinitive (with no ‘to’) आता है। ऐसे sentences का passive हम to add करके बनाते हैं।

Examples:

 A-He made me laugh on stage.

P-I was made to laugh on stage by him.

 A-Sunil made Sita cry on her anniversary.

P- Sita was made to cry on her anniversary by Sunil.

Frequent Asked Questions (FAQs)

When we need to denote some action that is done by the second or third person, passive voice is required to use.

Examples:

He is seen by a doctor.

The bridge is constructed by a contractor.

Read More…

(Click Here) Time and Tense

(Click Here) Parts of Speech 

(Click Here) Number: Basic to Advanced

(Click Here) Voice: Active to Passive

(Click Here) Gender and its Types

(Click Here) Prepositions and Its Types

(Click Here) Case and Its Types

(Click Here) Articles: a, an  and the

(Click Here) Some Basic Concept in Grammar

(Click Here) Wh- Question Words Family, Lists, and Examples

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